Language Policy & Identity In The U.S. (Maping Racisms)

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In the early twentieth-century, such views on race were widely accepted in many parts of the world. In fact, race is not biologically based, it is a cultural classification of groups. Many intellectuals, including scientists and historians, have lent pseudoscientific support to racist thinking. Racism, including racial antisemitism , was always an integral part of German National Socialism.

The Nazis perceived all of human history as the history of a biologically determined struggle between races.

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They postulated that political movements such as Marxism, communism, pacifism, and internationalism were anti-nationalist and reflected a dangerous, racially based Jewish intellectualism. Such determinations could mean the difference between life and death, as in cases in which a pregnancy resulted from a sexual relationship between a Polish forced laborer in Germany and a German woman. The Nazi leadership and the German health care community euphemistically referred to the series of operations aimed at the physical annihilation of the so-called unfit as "euthanasia".

During the war, German physicians conducted bogus medical experiments seeking to identify physical evidence of German Aryan racial superiority to other so-called races. Despite killing countless prisoners in the course of these experiments, they could not find a scientific basis for their racial theories. Indeed, despite attempts of racists for two hundred years to discover "scientific" evidence of inherited inferiority of certain so-called races, biological science does not support the racist notion of racial differences between different groups of human beings that go beyond superficial external physical characteristics, such as skin or eye color.

Moreover, there is no scientific basis for the notion that possession of a certain skin or eye color denotes superior or inferior physical or mental health or abilities or inherited personality traits.

During twelve years of Nazi rule German Roma were incarcerated in prisons, labor camps and concentration camps. Also included among the so-called inferior races in Nazi ideology were the Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe and the Asian ethnic groups of the Soviet Union. This policy included the murder and annihilation of enemy "races. The Nazis also perceived German residents of African nationality or descent as inferior and dangerous and planned for their eventual disappearance—within a generation—through a mass sterilization policy.

Though this policy was not consistently applied, the German authorities routinely and viciously persecuted and discriminated against German residents of African descent. Physical elimination was to take place immediately by mass murder or within a generation by sterilization.

These policies of elimination were applied toward Jews, Roma, persons with disabilities living in institutions, and German residents of African descent. Intellectual decapitation was to be achieved through mass murder of the leadership elites and reduction of the surviving population into an reservoir of uneducated forced manual laborers. We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia.

Join now. France has an exhaustive catalog of anti-racism legislations that outlaw racial discrimination, ban hate speech, and establish the legal role of anti-racist associations as partners of the government, among other things. Nevertheless, hate speech and racially motivated violent crime have been on the rise in France, according to the latest report by the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance ECRI.

The concept of absolute equality goes so far that, based on a law banning the collection and storage of race-related data, the French government does not even include any information on race or ethnicity in its census, for instance. Critics say this approach has effectively rendered minorities in France invisible and hampers measures to directly support racial, linguistic, or ethnic minority groups.

Instead, class or geographic criteria are used to target social problems, as for example in the banlieues. Young French men of African descent are statistically less likely to get a job than their counterparts with a similar level of education, for instance. Roma are also a frequent target of racist discourse and discrimination in France.

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There was a rising number of anti-Muslim attacks reported in reaction to the terror attacks in Paris and on the Charlie Hebdo magazine, for example. However, according to some critics, narrow interpretations have been used to discriminate against religious minority groups, including Muslims.

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The law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools, for instance, caused much debate. It does not focus on a specific religion but generally forbids wearing noticeable religious signs at school. However, discussions at the time of its introduction focused primarily on Muslim girls wearing headscarves and many are of the opinion that the law continues to affect Muslim women disproportionally. Similarly, bans of long swim wear in a number of French seaside cities in clearly targeted burkinis if not in word then in deed.

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The ECRI had noticed an increase in anti-Semitic acts by nearly 40 percent between and and there were deadly attacks on a Jewish school in and a kosher supermarket in There are a range of legislation to promote and protect gender equality in France, with a law further addressing equality at work, parental leave, gender stereotypes in the media, parity in politics, and the protection from domestic abuse just the latest reform. However, while the legal framework for gender equality has been well-developed, equality in reality is still some way off.

Similarly, there are reports of indirect and direct discrimination against female entrepreneurs, in particular. In politics, parity rules apply on all but small-town municipal levels, although female representation is still low. Homophobic hate speech was particularly prevalent in , when tens of thousands protested the legalization of same-sex marriage and adoption under the Manif pour Tous campaign.

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However, as of , artificial insemination is still restricted to heterosexual couples. We do our best to keep this article up to date. However, we cannot guarantee that the information provided is always current or complete. Join now Log in Email. Password Forgot password? Keep me logged in.

Log in. Connect with fellow expats in France.